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Sapphire – September birthstone

Sapphire (Greek; sappheiros, ‘blue stone’ is a typically blue gemstone variety of the mineral corundum. Trace amounts of elements such as iron, can give corundum a blue color. Chromium impurities in corundum yield pink or red tint, the latter being called ruby. Because of the remarkable hardness of sapphires – 9 on the Mohs scale (the third hardest mineral, after diamond at 10 ,sapphires are used in some non-ornamental applications, including infrared optical components, such as in scientific instruments; high-durability windows; wristwatch crystals and movement bearings; and very thin electronic wafers. sapphire-title
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Green Peridot – August birthstone

peridot-stonesPeridot is one of the few gemstones that occur in only one color, an olive-green. The intensity and tint of the green, however, depends on how much iron is contained in the crystal structure, so the color of individual peridot gems can vary from yellow—to olive—to brownish-green. The most valued color is a dark olive-green. Olivine, of which peridot is a type, is a common mineral and it is often found in lavas. Peridot can be also found in meteorites. Olivine in general is a very abundant mineral, but gem quality peridot is rather rare. This is due to the mineral’s chemical instability on the Earth’s surface. Olivine is usually found as small grains, and tends to exist in a heavily weathered state, unsuitable for decorative use. Peridot olivine is mined in Arkansas, Arizona on the San Carlos Reservation, Hawaii, Nevada, and New Mexico at Kilbourne Hole, in the US; and in Australia, Brazil, China, Egypt, Kenya, Mexico, Myanmar (Burma), Norway, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania.        
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Krugerrand

The Krugerrand is a South African gold coin, first minted in 1967 to help market South African gold and produced by the South African Mint. By 1980 the Krugerrand accounted for 90% of the global gold coin market. The name itself is a compound of “Kruger” (the man depicted on the obverse) and “rand”, Production levels of Krugerrands significantly varied during the last 50 years. During the period 1967–1969 around 40,000 coins were minted each year. In 1970 the amount rose to 211,018 coins. Over one million coins were produced in 1974 and in 1978 a total of six million Krugerrands were produced. Following the end of apartheid the production dropped to 23,277 coins in 1998 and since then levels have increased again. The Krugerrand was introduced in 1967 as a vehicle for private ownership of gold. Unusual for bullion coins, the Krugerrand was given the status of legal tender or currency. Krugerrand coins containing 46 million ounces of gold have been sold. Krugerrand_(8437358973)
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Ruby – July birthstone

A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone. The red color is caused mainly by the presence of chromium. Its name comes from ruber, Latin for red. Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires. Ruby is considered one of the four precious stones, together with sapphire, emerald and diamond. Prices of rubies are primarily determined by color. The brightest and most valuable “red” called blood-red or “pigeon blood”, commands a large premium over other rubies of similar quality. The world’s most expensive ruby is the Sunrise Ruby. ruby__banner
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Pearl – June Birthstone

Pearl is a hard object produced within the soft tissue of a living shelled mollusc. Just like the shell of a clam, a pearl is composed of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form, which has been deposited in concentric layers. The ideal pearl is perfectly round and smooth, but many other shapes (baroque pearls) occur. The finest quality natural pearls have been highly valued as gemstones and objects of beauty for many centuries. The most valuable pearls occur spontaneously in the wild, but are extremely rare. These wild pearls are referred to as natural pearls. Cultured or farmed pearls from pearl oysters and freshwater mussels make up the majority of those currently sold. Various_pearls  
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